Brooks Friley, Mike Hermann, Heather Leighfield, Sandra Meddock, Ben Musick and Dave Rucker
Introduction:
The 2002 History of Winter (HOW) study took place at Lake Placid, New York. A total of 16 teachers and pre-service teachers were involved in the study. The group was split into two teams. Each team performed independent studies using identical protocols at different sites.

Lake Ice:
On February 18, 2002, at 9:10 am, the group traveled to Cascade Lake where data were gathered from the lake ice and from snow pits. First, the snow was cleared from a central location on the lake. Next, an auger was used to drill a hole in the ice. A GPS was used to determine latitude, longitude, and elevation. Upon clearing the snow from the ice, the observation was made that the ice was coarse and opaque. A tape measure with a collapsible brass weight attached to the end was dropped into the hole to measure the depth of the ice. Once this was done, a block of ice was cut out of the lake using a chainsaw, tongs, and a pry bar. This was repeated two more times to obtain a total of three ice blocks. At another location, an auger was used to drill a core of ice. This ice, in addition to the blocks of ice, was observed and information was recorded.

INTRO / THERMOMETER CALIBRATION / ICE BLOCKS / ICE CORES