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The following is an initial document detailing the questions, thoughts, and suggestions developed by the teacher-scientists participating in the June 2002 Bolivia I.C.E. training.

Questions/Comments from teachers:

GPS readings are needed of all samples taken in Bolivia to keep track of data collected.

Landscape Reconstruction & Soils:

Profiles need to be collected where a diversity of samples is expected. The general consensus is that those working in field will have to use good judgments in making these decisions. Soil profiles need to be taken both inside and outside the crater. The profiles need to be taken on the rim, in the center of crater, forest region, grassland region, and the transition area between forest and grasslands. A Digital Camera needs to be used to record all soil samples. A White Plastic Bag should be used for the background of all soil pictures.

One area of great interest is the stream running through the crater. Soil profiles near the stream may show diversity. If possible, the team needs to sample in the area of the stream in the crater and outside the crater. This area needs to be examined for differences from other areas.

Due to the limited availability of rock, all rocks need to be collected or examined for cratering characteristics. The weathering of rocks due to the weather conditions in Bolivia makes even collecting small pebbles important.

One idea is to investigate all anthills. Use a hand lens to look at materials brought up by the ants looking especially for the presence of any type of rock material.

Flora and Fauna:

Globe protocols will be used to verify the Landsat image of the vegetation.

Diversity and changes in vegetation need to be recorded. Digital cameras need to be used whenever possible to bring back images of the vegetation. The site team will need to judge the best sites to show diversity of vegetation.

Sample areas should parallel those listed above under Landscape Reconstruction & Soils.

Fauna should be recorded with digital pictures taken when possible.

Species diversification and change is what needs to be examined. Is there any noticeable difference between flora and fauna outside and inside the crater?


Elevations are needed of a) the rim; b) the area outside the crater; c) the area inside the crater (especially at the center).

What is the water flow in the crater during the wet season? Can anything be determined from the paths water takes? Is there a noticeable area of change from these waterflows?


The Magplane should fly first over the center of the crater and then work out from there. The most important passes should happen first in case of problems develop later with the magplane.Teachers are looking forward to seeing the images from the magplane. Pictures from the canopy will be unique.


Magnetometer readings need to be corrected for background. Dropping magnets into soil samples holes was suggested. The hope is to bring up any magnetized rocks.Practice data is needed to compare to data received from the crater.

Analysis and understanding of the data is a concern for the teachers.

Other questions:

How are we supposed to communicate with the field team?

When and how are we supposed to bring in other educators?

Future expedition ideas:

Gravity meter needs to be taken into the region to determine depth of the crater. This data is needed for analysis.

Echo sounding might be considered for future expeditions.

A tether balloon for above the treetop observations was a suggestion.